Can it be done? I wasted two hours of my life trying the new Ubuntu Hyper-V instance that comes with Windows 10. Turns out you need it in enhanced mode if you want to plug in a USB card reader though. When I did that, I gave up trying to login, it would just keep disconnecting!
Next, I tried DiskInternals Linux Recover: that looked promising, I could see files from Linux file systems! But after falling into that rabbit hole of deleted file searching and with the hassio-data/supervisor directory being empty, I gave up fiddling with settings. Another 2 hours wasted.
What did work… I got another SD card imaged with Ubuntu, booted it up on the PI, then plugged in a memory card reader with the old SD card and the home assistant config was there waiting for me all along. I wish I had done that first time! You’ll find your snapshots on the hassio-data drive in the /supervisor/backup folder. If you’re after the config, it’s in the /supervisor/homeassistant folder.
Have fun hacking with hassio. Don’t forget you can automate hass.io Home Assistant backups and save all this hassle!